Exploring the Main Components of Building Automation Systems

Building Automation Systems (BAS) are a set of interconnected devices and software that automates the control of a building’s mechanical, electrical, and plumbing systems. The main objective of BAS is to save energy, improve occupant comfort, and reduce operational costs. The BAS consists of several components that work together to achieve these goals. 

Read on as we explore the main components of building automation systems.

The Sensors

Sensors are essential components of building automation systems. They measure various environmental variables, such as temperature, humidity, lighting levels, occupancy, and air quality. The sensors send signals to the BAS, which uses this information to adjust the building’s systems accordingly. For instance, if a temperature sensor detects that a room is too hot, the BAS can turn on the air conditioning to cool the room. If an occupancy sensor detects that a room is empty, the BAS can turn off the lights to save energy.

The Controllers

Controllers are the “brains” of the BAS. They receive data from the sensors and use it to make decisions about how to control the building’s systems. There are two types of controllers: programmable and non-programmable. Non-programmable controllers are pre-set to perform a specific function, such as turning on a fan when a temperature threshold is reached. Programmable controllers are more versatile as they can be customised to perform various functions. For example, a programmable controller can be programmed to turn on the fan when the temperature reaches a certain threshold, but only if the room is occupied.

The Actuators

Actuators are devices that physically control the building’s systems. They receive signals from the controllers and adjust the systems accordingly. For example, a fan actuator can adjust the speed of a fan to increase or decrease airflow. Similarly, a valve actuator can open or close a valve to regulate water flow.

The Human-Machine Interface (HMI)

The HMI is the interface that allows humans to interact with the BAS. It includes devices such as touchscreens, buttons, and keypads that allow users to adjust settings, monitor the building’s systems, and receive alerts. The HMI is an essential component of the BAS as it enables users to respond quickly to potential issues and make adjustments to the building’s systems.

The Communication Networks

Communication networks are the backbone of the BAS. They enable the various components of the system to communicate with each other. There are two types of communication networks: wired and wireless. Wired networks are more reliable and secure, but they can be costly and difficult to install. Wireless networks are more flexible and cost-effective, but they can be susceptible to interference and security breaches.

The Software

The software is the “brain” of the BAS. It receives data from the sensors and controllers and uses this information to make decisions about how to control the building’s systems. The software can also analyse data to identify patterns and trends, which can help users optimise the building’s systems for maximum efficiency. There are various types of software used in building automation systems, including building automation software, energy management software, and fault detection and diagnostic software.

The Integration

Integration is the process of connecting various building systems to the BAS. This includes HVAC systems, lighting systems, security systems, and more. Integrating these systems into the BAS enables users to control all aspects of the building’s operations from a single interface, making it easier to detect and respond to potential issues.


Building automation systems are becoming increasingly popular as building owners and operators seek to improve energy efficiency, reduce costs, and enhance occupant comfort. The main components of building automation systems include sensors, controllers, actuators, human-machine interfaces, communication networks, software, and integration. These components work together to create a centralised system that can monitor and control all aspects of a building’s operations. By investing in building automation systems, building owners and operators can improve the performance of their buildings, reduce energy consumption, and create more comfortable and productive spaces for occupants.

Are you interested in investing in a building automation system? EDSA Group is a team of professional electricians for residential, commercial, and industrial projects. Get in touch with us today!

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